The low status of women and secret operation of many of their organizations and societies, have somewhat limited the amount of data on the subject.
Hire Writer It is almost as if war has ended for the country, between Iraq and Iran, but not for its citizens as the men and women struggle to reestablish former roles.
Al-ali, In present day Iraq, there is evidence of the violence and anarchy that occurs during post-war situations.
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Women are at the receiving end of a constant chain of abuse and aggression to a degree that is greater than even that which existed during the period of war or during the period of intervention by the military. The women are subjected to lawlessness, lack of security, abductions, sexual abuse and harassment, chaos, and even the extreme events of rape.
Al-ali, ; Ziad, 16 These occurences may be due to the fact that the males of the society, who were once an integral part of the household of these women, are intimidated by the fact that their roles were so easily replaced and taken over. The intimidation felt by the males may have led to a lashing out at the females who, in fact, did nothing more than that which was needed and asked of them by the country during the time of war.
Also, the violence and physical nature of the work they conducted for the military has carried over to bring violence even into their own homes after the war. Al-ali, This paper tries to understand and enumerate the different roles that Iraqi women play both during and after a period of war.
These will be categorized into three types of roles: The political role will involve any roles they have had in relation to the government and its dealings.
The economic role will involve any roles Iraqi women have had to play in relation to business and finance. And the social roles will involve all other uncovered role that these women have had to play in a society that has been predominantly ruled through male hegemony.
Political Role of Iraqi Women Before the rule of the infamous Saddam Hussein in Iraq, Iraqi women were known to have participated politically and some were even noted to have been activists. However, autonomous political participation of these women was cut short at the onset of the s.
At this time, they were encouraged to join the Baath party and to try to earn positions in the government by running for the rubber-stamp parliament.
The results of these elections showed how greatly marginalized women were in the Iraqi society. In the first Baathist parliamentary elections held inonly 16 women won a seat in a seat Council. The results of the Baathist parliamentary elections were not all that different when 33 women candidates won seats in the Council.
This was despite the fact that an organization called the General Federation of Iraqi Women served as the political vehicle of women in Iraq.
Over 1 million Iraqi women were members of this federation and yet the political representation of women in the government of Iraq remains negligible and even questionable.
Al-ali, However, Iraqi Kurdistan which gained semi-autonomy was able to become a venue wherein Iraqi women could establish civil society organizations and associations.
These women soon became steeped in party politics. Although of the 20 ministers of the Kurdistan Regional government, only two were female ministers, females in Kurdistan began to be able to avail of employment in the civil service. Although political activity of women in Iraqi Kurdistan was growing and they were gaining important political roles as members of the government, their political pariticaption was often opposed and blocked off by the other male politicians.
Harassment of female activists denouncing killings were often reported. Also, projects of certain women-led organizations aiming to foster a more positive social situation, especially for the female citizens, were most often met by opposition from male politicians and in most cases were shut down and discontinued due to the strength of the opposition.
Al-ali, Although females were beginning to voice out and claim new positions as active movers in the political arena, their actions were unappreciated and even reviled by their male counterparts.
The political roles that females played were roles that they had to fight for. These were not freely given by the society they lived in. Although during the war women were held in high esteem for the important contributions they could make to the war-torn Iraq, their roles were once again brought down to those they traditionally had once war was concluded.
Al-ali, After the war, women were seen to be pushed further back into the background of Iraqi society. Their political roles were greater and more influential prior to the war and continued to decrease significantly as war ravaged the country and even after the war was finished. Iraqi women, although aspiring and fighting for equal political representation, are greatly marginalized in the society they so bitterly fought hard to keep alive during the period of war.
Al-ali, Political research has shown, however, that greater progress can be achieved by the war-torn Iraq if women are allowed to take a more active political role.
· BAGHDAD — Violence gripping Iraq has cast the country's women into non-traditional roles: providers and protectors.
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