Read my article as an introduction to the mismatch school of thought. Pick up the book for the full treatment of the topic.
Current Case Fisher v. Texas Inseveral high school seniors who had been denied admission at the University of Texas-Austin filed a lawsuit. The students argued that the University of Texas could not use race as a factor in admission processes if there were other race-neutral options that would have the same results on diversity.
A federal district judge Support for affirmative action programs essay in favor of the University of Texas, stating that the University had complied with the admission requirements laid out in Grutter v.
Additionally, the court cited a University of Texas study fromwhich found that that year 79 percent of the university's individual courses had zero or one African-American students and 30 percent of the courses had zero or one Hispanic students.
Thus, the court decided that while race neutral options had been considered, these options were not a viable way for the University of Texas system to maintain and increase diversity.
In Januarya three-judge panel of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals heard the case and upheld the ruling in favor of the University of Texas. In Junethe full court decided not to rehear the lawsuit, letting the decision of the three-member panel stand. Supreme Court agreed to hear the case in February In a Fischer I ruling released Junethe Court did not overturn affirmative action generally, but did emphasize that affirmative action programs need to be more strictly reviewed.
The Court explained that the program must pass a test of "strict scrutiny," proving an absence of alternatives that do not include race as a means to diversify the student body. The case is being sent back to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in order to determine if the University of Texas' affirmative action program passes this test.
Supreme Court ruled that using racial quotas in college admission decisions violated the Equal Protection Clause. Constitution, affirms that "no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. In a direct challenge to the Bakke decision, the U.
Court of Appeals ruled in the Hopwood v. Texas case that race could not be a factor in admission decisions.
The defendant, the state of Texas, appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, but the appeal was refused. Similarly, in the Johnson v.
University of Georgia case, the U. Court of Appeals held that the university's admission policy, which used race as a factor in admission decisions, violated the Equal Protection Clause. The court ruled that adding a fixed number of points to the admission score of every non-white applicant is not an appropriate mechanism for achieving diversity.
In andtwo lawsuits challenged the constitutionality of using race in the admission processes at the University of Michigan and the University of Michigan Law School.
InJennifer Gratz was denied admission to the University of Michigan undergraduate program, and a year later Barbara Grutter was rejected from the University of Michigan Law School. Both plaintiffs argued that their academic credentials and extracurricular activities should have awarded them a spot at the University.
They claimed they were subjected to a form of reverse discrimination due to the university's affirmative action policies. The University of Michigan argued that its admission criteria were constitutional, and that the policies fostered a racially and ethnically diverse student body.
Inthe U. Supreme Courtruled in the Gratz v. Bollinger case that the point system used by the University of Michigan for undergraduate admissions was unconstitutional. The admissions policy was based on points, and it awarded points based on items such as race 20 pointsathletic ability 20 pointsdepth of essay up to 3 pointsleadership and service up to 5 points and personal achievement up to 5 points.
The point system, therefore, automatically awarded admission points to underrepresented minorities. In the majority decision, Chief Justice Rehnquist stated that the University of Michigan had violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by using an overly mechanized system as a way to include race in admission decisions.With more than academic programs to choose from, you'll find a field of study that excites your passions.
Affirmative action in higher education grew out of the civil rights movement. After centuries of discrimination and segregation, minorities in America did not — and could not — rush into universities the moment they finally opened their doors.
31× See Colin S. Diver, From Equality to Diversity: The Detour from Brown to Grutter, U. Ill. L. Rev. , – The Economics of Life: From Baseball to Affirmative Action to Immigration, How Real-World Issues Affect Our Everyday Life [Gary S. Becker, Guity Nashat Becker] on ph-vs.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
From economics Nobel Laureate Gary Becker and historian Guity Nashat Becker comes this collection of the economist's popular BusinessWeek columns. - The affirmative action program is important because it gives job opportunities for many people regardless of their race, color, religion, gender, and national origin.
The work force should be well represented by the different ethnic backgrounds of our society. Here, you'll find access to a variety of resources for UB faculty and staff, including information on research and teaching support, IT and HR tools, as well as . The purpose of this paper is to provide an exploration of the impact of affirmative action programs for disabled veterans versus those of non-veterans, affirmative action groups.
as well as ensure that they receive the resources they need to support themselves following their disabilities. Ultius, Inc. "Research Paper on Affirmative /5(3).