Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list. There are adjectives with both positive and negative connotations which describe both ends of this spectrum. From an academic, comparative religions viewpoint, there is no basis for "prescribing" whether it is better for a religion to be highly unified, cohesive, monolithic, and lacking in internal religious diversity, or whether it is better to be fragmented, schismatic, diverse, multifaceted and abounding in variations on the same theme.
Part 1 -- The History of Islamic Spain Before beginning to analyze the impact of the Muslim world on Western science and technology, it is helpful to understand the history and culture of the Islamic world.
Therefore, we will start this section with a tutorial on the history of the Islamic World tocreated by the University of Calgary. You should read the following four web sites before you begin the section on Muslim Contributions to Science and Technology. Originally a ten page article published in the Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion, ed.
Robert Wuthnow; then put online by Congressional Quarterly, Inc. After the reconquest of Spain by Christian forces, much of the scientific knowledge that was developed by Muslims came to Western Europe through Spain.
Therefore, a knowledge of the Muslim conquest and loss of Spain is crucial to understanding the flow of information.
And, this difference can be traced directly to Muslim influences. Spain, even before the Moslem conquests, was the scene of much fighting Spread of islam in africa essay territorial disputes. Shortly after, Spain was again conquered by the Visigoths to AD.
Kings from Visigoth families ruled Spain for the next two hundred years until the Muslim conquest of Spain that began in AD Collins, Over the next 19 years, the Muslims conquered most of Spain and were threatening to conquer France until stopped by Charles Martel the grandfather of Charlemagne at Poiters in Click on this link to read three different accounts on the Battle of Tours, http: As discussed in the University of Calgary tutorial, Spain was ruled for years by the descendents of the Umayyad ruling house.
You will remember from the tutorial that the Abbasid Revolution in destroyed Umayyad power in most areas of the Islamic world. However, during the Revolution, the grandson of one of the former caliphs escaped to Spain and set up a kingdom that lasted until the Berbers from North Africa took over in the 11th century.
Scientific knowledge, architecture, mathematics, and philosophy flourished in Spain during the rule of the Umayyad. Much of this intellectual climate can be traced to the precepts of the Qur'an in English, we sometimes refer to this as the Koran.
Throughout the Qur'an, there is a strong emphasis on the value of knowledge. As noted in the tutorial, "because Muslims believe that Allah is all-knowing, they also believe that the human world's quest for knowledge leads to further knowing of Allah.
Muslims must thus pursue knowledge not only of God's laws, but of the natural world as well, extending the frontiers of human knowledge. Unlike the revealed knowledge of the Qur'an, Muslims believe that human knowledge is not perfect, and requires constant exploration and advancement through research and experimentation.
According to the Qur'an, learning and gaining knowledge is the highest form of religious activity for Muslims, and the one which is most pleasing to God.
He is arguably the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. In his writings, he spelled out the procedures for testing the effectiveness of a new drug.
Beyond his work in medicine, he also made significant contributions in philosophy, mathematics, chemistry, and astronomy and was the author of over books. Photo obtained from http: Much of this knowledge was discovered by Muslim scientists while other knowledge was derived from other cultures including the Greeks, Persians, Indian, and Chinese.
The Muslims synthesized, elaborated, and transmitted this knowledge to Spain; and eventually, to the entire Western world. In Western Europe at this time, most of the knowledge of the Greeks was lost.
It was only through the transfer of Greek knowledge including Aristotle's philosophy, Ptolemy's geography, Hippocrates' medicine by Islam Spain that this information ever got to Western Europe.
Historians have discovered that there were two major periods of intense scholarly work in the Muslim world during the Medieval Age. The first period was in the 9th and 10th centuries in Baghdad and the second period was the 12th and 13th century in Europe primarily Spain.
In both of these periods, Muslim translators first translated the Greek knowledge into Arabic and then into other languages. Of course, as was discussed previously, Greek knowledge was enhanced and expanded by Muslim scholars. Remember the primary language of Europe at this time was Latin--all the Romance languages French, Italian, etc were just beginning to be used and were generally considered to be vulgar According to the Encyclopedia BritannicaVulgar Latin "was primarily the speech of the middle classes in Rome and the Roman provinces.
Only a fraction of his work was known in Europe during the post-classical era, when barbarian invasions caused the loss of so much earlier culture.Spread of Islam.
Islam is not only one of the three major monotheistic religions in the world today, it is also it is the fastest growing.
Additionally, political conflict between Islamic groups and the West play out on the international stage like the latest of the Crusades.
Spread of Islam in West Africa by Professor Abdur-Rahman I Doi Words | 3 Pages.
his article “Spread of Islam in West Africa”, he traced the path that Islam as a new religion went throw before it spread into sub-Saharan region of West Africa focusing on the Empires of Ghana, Mali and Songhay, the Empires of Kanem-Bornu and Hausa-Fulani Land.
The history of the continent from an African perspective. With hundreds of pages, and multi-media, the BBC investigates the events and characters that have made African history from the origins of. Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu: 1. Introduction. The history of the quest for the historical Muhammad in the modern Western literature has its origins from the time (c.
CE) of Sir William Muir  and Alois Sprenger. Both of them suspected that much of the Islamic traditions on Muhammad, which were accepted by Muslims as authentic, were in fact forged. There are varied approaches to the spread of the religion with different historical scholars having slightly varying perspectives on the spread of Islam in Africa.
According to Loimeier R., (n.d: Pp), Egypt (Misr) is widely viewed as the cradle of Islam as a religion and as early as there was already a university established in Cairo.
In writing about Muslims in East Africa, Randall Pouwels claims in The History of Islam in Africa, “The spread of Islam took place within a wider context—one of cultural influences and migrations. In West Africa, these movements were in the same direction, from north to south, as that taken by Islam.
|Spread of Islam - Wikipedia||Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Muhammad was born into a poor family in Mecca, but spent most of his childhood being raised by Bedouin relatives in a different town after he was orphaned at the age of six.|
|Changes and continuities in the Islamic world from to CE. | Teen Ink||Definitions Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include: King Salman bin Abdul AzizKing of Saudi Arabia  "a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, and restricts Islam's capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances" David Commins, paraphrasing opponents' definition  "a conservative reform movement|
|Women, Gender, and the Study of Africa - African Studies - Oxford Bibliographies||Islam in East Africa The East Coast of Africa has had links with various cultures and civilizations over the centuries.|
In East Africa on the other hand.