Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain Dome: Interior of the Pantheon in Rome Main article: Byzantine architecture The Byzantine Empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from the Roman Empire after ADwhen the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to Byzantium later renamed Constantinople and now called Istanbul.
The Roman legacy can be seen in Early Classical Revival homes in the southern regions of the east coast, particularly Virginia. Increasingly, however, archaeological investigations of the early nineteenth century focused on Greece as the mother of Rome and shifted interest to Grecian architectural models.
At the same time, the War of increased American resentments of British influence. These factors led to a flowering of what is now known as Greek Revival architecture. Walter, Ithiel Town, etc. In addition, guides for carpenter builders by Asher Benjamin and Minard Lafever made the style widely available for imitation.
Taking many shapes, it was the classic form of the Parthenon which inspired design of Bank of the United States in Philadelphiaand served as a catalyst, identifying Grecian architecture with economic security.
The National style, as it came to be known, became the universal fashion for public buildings, churches, banks, and town halls.
In New England and the northern United States, the side-passage, gable-front house was introduced. Vernacular examples abound, incorporating Grecian doorway moldings, window frames, and columns supporting porch roofs and suggesting the broad appeal of a style that represented a distant and idealized culture.
Greek Revival was the dominant style of domestic architecture between and Vernacular examples in rural areas of New England are also common.
Its revival in Europe began during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as part of the Picturesque movement. A design philosophy, this movement sought to break free from the rigid geometric nature of classicism and to create naturalistic and relaxed designed landscapes and homes.
As in previous centuries, Americans of the early nineteenth century were influenced by the cultural movements of Europe, including the Picturesque.
In the first example of Gothic Revival architecture in the United States was designed by architect Alexander Jackson Davis He was the first to champion the style for use in domestic construction and his book Rural Residences was the first house plan book published in the United States to include three-dimensional views and floor plans.
Americans put their own twist on the Gothic style, using details such as pointed arches on light wood-framed construction in a variation that is known as Carpenter Gothic. By the Gothic Revival style was declining in popularity. It enjoyed a brief resurgence in the s, stimulated by the writings of English art historian critic John Ruskin.
This High Victorian Gothic phase was principally applied to public buildings such as churches and libraries with a few landmark houses with the definitive polychrome cladding distinctive linear patterns in masonry distinguished by horizontal bands of contrasting colors or textures of brick or stonework.
Never as popular as the contemporary Greek Revival or Italianate styles for domestic architecture, most surviving examples exist in northeastern states where architects first popularized the style.
Few urban examples exist largely because Davis and Downing emphasized rural style, compatible with nature, and later High Victorian Gothic examples are rarely domestic buildings.
Polychromed exterior cladding High Victorian Gothic Oriel windows Castle-style towers, turrets, and parapeted gables Finials at gable peaks, window tracery, leaded stained glass Intricate wooden ornamentation using scroll saw technology at windows, roof-wall junctions, porches and doors Historic New England Example: It was inspired by the rambling, informal Italian villas of northern Italy with their characteristic square towers and asymmetrical, open floor plans.
The first Italianate houses in the United States were constructed in the late s, popularized by the pattern books of Andrew Jackson Downing similar to the Gothic Revival discussed above.
By the s however, the Italianate style surpassed the slightly earlier Gothic Revival in popularity. In the United States two separate approaches can be seen in domestic examples.
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One was more directly inspired by the traditional Italian villa with its masonry construction, square towers, and irregular massing and floor plans. This is distinguished from a more formal, symmetrical, and familiar townhouse or detached Greek Revival box to which Italianate ornamentation such as eave brackets and arched windows were applied.
In fact, vernacular examples developed into a truly American style with only passing reference to Italian models. The financial panic of and the subsequent economic depression directly led to the decline of the Italianate style. Examples of Italian villas and houses with Italianate detailing are common in expanding towns and cities of this era in the Midwest as well as older but still growing cities of the northeastern seaboard.
They were least commonly constructed in the southeastern United States. Two or three stories; typically asymmetrical, two-story L- or T-shaped plans Low-pitched, hipped roof with widely overhanging eaves Large eave brackets dominate cornice lines arranged singly or in pairs Tall, narrow windows, with 1: Square cupolas or towers campaniles ; less frequently octagonal Horizontal belt courses and corner quoins Balconies with balustrades Second Empire:The time after the Revolutionary War when America was beginning a new consciousness, marked by its recently acquired independence, was called the Federal Period.
American furniture makers still modeled designs from England but soon created styles with balanced proportions and symmetrical li.
original designs. By studying the period influences in decorating your home Style in relation to interior design can mean many things but overall it sums up.
In , the federal government spent a total of $1,,, on Architectural Services. It has awarded 8, contracts to companies, with an average value of $1,, per company. It has awarded 8, contracts to companies, with an average value of $1,, per company.
3 - Architectural and Interior Design. Integrated ph-vs.comape and Architectural designs must be integrated with all project design disciplines in order to optimize building performance and. The time after the Revolutionary War when America was beginning a new consciousness, marked by its recently acquired independence, was called the Federal Period. American furniture makers still modeled designs from England but soon created styles with balanced proportions and symmetrical li. This guide is intended as an introduction to American domestic architectural styles Interior Features: One-room period, domestic architecture in the Federal.
An Analysis of Interior and Architectural Designs in the American Federal Period PAGES 2. interior design, architectural design, american federal period. Interior Design Essay Examples.
An Analysis of Interior and Architectural Designs in the American Federal Period. words. 1 page. Architectural programming began when architecture began. analysis of plans of existing projects, Do facilities need to change over a period of a few hours?