In 19th century European politics, the reactionary class included the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy—the clergythe aristocracyroyal families and royalists —believing that national government is the sole domain of the Church and the state. In France, supporters of traditional rule by direct heirs of the House of Bourbon dynasty were labelled the legitimist reaction. In the Third Republicthe monarchists were the reactionary faction, later renamed conservative. In the 19th century, reactionary denoted people who idealized feudalism and the pre-modern era—before the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution—when economies were mostly agrariana landed aristocracy dominated society, a hereditary king ruled and the Roman Catholic Church was society's moral centre.
The left stood for radical change. The right for tradition and order. The left for equality. The right for hierarchy. Reformers versus revolutionaries basically but what of the political right? Indeed, we learn that, in regards to its intellectual origins, Fascism actually initially emerged from the revolutionary left itself, specifically revolutionary syndicalism and the revision of Marxism found in the thought of Georges Sorel in particular.
This turns left-right political spectrum logic on its head somewhat. To be fair to the likes of Jonah Goldberg and others, there are plenty of people on the political left who get this confused too. The reactionary mind and the form of politics which flow from it presents us with a contradiction in terms of political categorisation: What of the libertarian?
This tendency was typified in my mind by a Twitter exchange I had with a libertarian interlocuter in which they asked me earnestly, seriously and without intended malice: The left-liberal may balance love of liberty with a preference for some degree of economic security and the redistribution of wealth social democracy whereas the right-liberal may balance his or her love of freedom with a strong need for order conservatism as manifested by such policy preferences as the advocation of a strong military, border control and punitive measures for certain kinds of criminal offences for instance, but for the libertarian, the gordian knot of politics is made so much simpler by cutting through all other competing priorities and replacing them with just one above all others: Authoritarianism and libertarianism are precise opposites right?
How can it be that one could serve as a conduit to the other? Berlin differentiated between negative liberty — freedom from — and positive liberty — freedom to or freedom for.
Because libertarianism itself is a form of political reaction just as Fascism was. Libertarianism was not formed in a political void, it was a reaction to something it still is and it is that something which libertarianism is seeking freedom from.
Fascism was a belated reaction to the Englightenment, libertarianism? Libertarians are seeking negative freedom from the state, to avoid what they see as the road to serfdom.
Looked at in this way we can see that reactionaries on the right have a symbiotic relationship with their counterparts on the left. As the left evolves, so, in turn, will the reactionary right because: So what are modern-day reactionaries reacting against?
What is fuelling their reactionary fire?My focus is on the term “left-wing fascism.” In real time, Benito Mussolini and his movement – fascism or national socialism – was of the left.
Mussolini was a great admirer of Karl Marx and Marx’s principle of revolutionary socialism. Fascism represented a counter-revolutionary attack against political and economic equality, tolerance, and freedom.
Rooted in the ideology of the anti-Enlightenment, fascism was not only a reaction against liberal politics and a rejection of democracy. Revolutionary politics, the rise of fascism, and the politics of the body: Weimar Germany and now Rob Heynen In Fascism and Dictatorship, his classic work on fascism, Nicos Poulantzas argued that the problem of fascism was reasserting itself.
The System of Government Fascism Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the Bolshevik Revolution.
ENIGMAS OF FASCISM Dylan Riley REVIEWS Was fascism a revolutionary or a counter-revolutionary phenomenon? ant of totalitarian politics, and offers yet another example of the disasters to which twentieth-century revolutions led—Hitler and Stalin as twin mon-sters of the age.
If, on the other hand, fascism was counter-revolutionary, then. The Origins of Fascism Fascism arose as a form of counter-revolutionary politics in early twentieth-century Europe in response to: Rapid social upheaval The devastation of World War I .